Library & Tools

The Green Grid is delivering a consistent set of definitions and tools to make it easier for data center managers to determine and compare their operational efficiency. Specific white papers, calculation tools and industry glossary represent some of the industry’s most comprehensive thinking around data center efficiency.

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White Paper #68 - The Performance Indicator Assessing And Visualizing Data Center Cooling Performance

The Performance Indicator introduced in this white paper presents three key cooling performance metrics (including one that utilizes PUE) to build a balanced understanding of data center cooling performance.

The Green Grid developed the cooling performance metrics to ensure that, in the bid to save energy, the assessed facility maintains its ability to house and protect equipment during normal and resilient operation as it evolves throughout its life. This white paper presents definitions for the thermal conformance and thermal resilience of the IT as the cooling performance metrics. Using these metrics allows data center owners/operators to observe the compromises that may exist between maintaining acceptable thermal performance and striving for energy efficiency. It includes methods of calculation along with a detailed case study.

The white paper also discusses the fact that the Performance Indicator is not limited to these three metrics (or indeed to cooling performance alone) in the long term; rather, additional metrics can be accommodated as they are defined.

In order to obtain a complete and accurate assessment of a facility, it is necessary to calculate and display the metrics for the future states of the facility as well as its current state. The Green Grid recommends modeling, simulation, and power and temperature monitoring — all concepts this white paper addresses in detail.

Data centers are complex systems, and the various performance metrics are generally intertwined. The Performance Indicator allows the owner/operator to configure changes without excessive focus on a single metric, such as PUE, which could potentially result in stranded capacity or unintended risk.

General - June 22, 2016 Comment now
White Paper #67 - Modern Assessment of the Susceptibility of Data Center Information and Communication Technology Equipment to Power Outages and Disturbances

Managing a data center involves striking balances. Owners and operators weigh reliability, availability, and other business requirements against capital and operational expenses to find the most efficient ways to design and run their data centers. As with nearly all decision making, the more accurate and tailored the information they have, the smarter the decisions they can make.

The Green Grid Association (TGG) is a consortium that works to improve information and communications technology (ICT) and data center resource efficiencies worldwide. TGG took a closer look at the guidelines currently available for data center owners and operators to use to determine the susceptibility of the power supply units (PSUs) in ICT equipment to disturbances and outages caused by momentary input voltage dropouts. TGG evaluated the most historically accepted susceptibility guidelines—the Information Technology Industry Council (ITIC) curve—against the changing nature of today’s ITC equipment, including the diminishing power supply ride-through times and their often hidden effects on overall data center efficiency.

This white paper provides TGG’s findings, descriptions of various data center power distribution system configurations, and a discussion of onsite renewable energy generation, microgrids, and existing standards related to the ITIC curve. The Green Grid also lays out recommended next steps for the industry to take to ultimately give data center owners and operators better information that they can use to design for efficiency as well as reliability. 

General - March 30, 2016 Comment now
White Paper #66 - Analysis of the Server Efficiency Rating Tool

The Green Grid Association—a consortium that works to improve IT and data center resource efficiency worldwide—analyzed the Server Efficiency Rating Tool (SERT™) metric data generated by server manufacturers for internal purposes or for their server products to meet the certification requirements of the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR® specification for Computer Servers.  The Green Grid’s goals were to evaluate the efficacy of the SERT test suite as a tool to assess the energy efficiency of server products and to consider its application and use in developing and setting performance/power efficiency thresholds for server products.

The Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC®) released Version 1 of the SERT software concurrently with the publication of the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Computer Servers Program. Due to this timing, manufacturers had a minimal understanding of how server configuration and component choices would affect the SERT results. The Information Technology Industry Council collected and blinded SERT results from more than 95 machine types/models and 495 configurations. The Green Grid SERT Analysis Working Group analyzed this data to understand the impacts of configuration type and component selection on the SERT efficiency scores. This white paper details the working group’s findings and provides server manufacturers, regulators, and stakeholders information on the strengths and limitations of the SERT tool for assessing the energy efficiency of server products. It also provides recommendations regarding the use of the SERT in mandatory and voluntary server energy efficiency schemas.

General - November 10, 2015 Comment now
White Paper #65 - Data Center Airflow Management Calculators

In recent years the nation and the world, alongside the utility sector; have shown concern over the large energy consumption of data centers. In the U.S., data center electricity use is estimated at approximately 2% of the total national consumption . Data centers, and other high density IT environments of all types, remain a growing energy end user , as well as one of the most energy intensive facility types in utility portfolios.

For a data center facility, implementation of effective (Airflow Management) AFM practices serves as the key to unlock potential fan energy reductions, higher efficiency of mechanical cooling equipment, and additional hours of economizer “free” cooling. Simple steps toward improved airflow management, such as containment aisles and blanking panels used to separate cold air from hot air, not only provide effective temperature control, but can improve cooling system performance; increase data center energy efficiency, and reclaim stranded capacity in existing data centers.

Organizations such as The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and the US Department of Energy (US DOE), among others, have documented the importance and benefits of AFM best practices. Despite these efforts, and the increasing availability of utility incentive programs willing to support AFM improvements, a widely accepted method for quantifying energy savings that can be realized from AFM measures has yet to be developed.

Many electric utilities have strong interest in providing efficiency incentive opportunities for data centers as part of their energy efficiency program mandates. For utility programs offering incentives, customized engineering calculations are typically needed in order to make reliable estimates of energy savings attributed to AFM measures. However, in small to mid-sized data centers (Designed for up to 750 kW of critical load), hiring the expertise to assess, recommend and compute return on investment (ROI) of the energy savings actions to receive utility incentives is often not cost-effective. As a result, many of these energy efficiency opportunities are never pursued.

The Green Grid is helping data centers achieve better energy efficiency performance through programs including development of the Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) measurement and the Green Grid’s Data Center Maturity Model™ (DCMM). However, to further advance energy efficiency, empower a progression towards greater data center maturity, and claim available utility incentives , an energy efficiency calculator widely accepted by both the global data center and utility industry is needed.

Substantial variations exist in tools commonly available for evaluation of AFM potential. This paper will review the major publicly available software tools and calculators that exist today and identify the strengths and weaknesses of each with respect to their applicability in estimating energy savings for utility incentives. Additionally, this paper will define the requirements for a calculator that will meet the needs of utilities and the data center industry. Development of calculators meeting these requirements will enable additional support by utilities and help drive adoption of AFM best practices.

General - July 22, 2015 Comment now
White Paper #64 - Data Center Segmentation: Workload Archetypes

Energy efficiency can be described as the amount of “useful work” accomplished in relation to the energy consumed to perform said work. Defining data center efficiency therefore requires an acceptable standard definition of “useful work.”

While each data center varies by the type, value, and criticality of the business services it provides, there are similarities in the types of business services that most data centers provide, and these can be categorized as “useful work.” Categorizing data centers by their useful work and/or applications being used should aid in describing and defining the measures by which energy efficiency for the supported business can be assessed.

The Green Grid has created a set of archetypes that describe “typical” workload or application groupings of useful work. These archetypes enable the development of standard comparison metrics that properly represent the variety of data center productivity targets. They also make it possible to make baseline comparisons of the energy efficiency of one data center’s unique business services with another’s.

General - May 20, 2015 Comment now
White Paper #63 - Free Power Quality

The concept of “Free Power Quality” is somewhat analogous to “free cooling.” The Green Grid’s explanation and endorsement of free cooling helped accelerate data center industry adoption of more efficient cooling techniques in data centers. Members of The Green Grid (and the broader data center audience) might view the topic of Free Power Quality as offering similar opportunities to enhance their facilities’ energy efficiency.

End users are increasingly demanding that power quality vendors innovate. They want vendors to push the conventional boundaries of data center equipment and its implementation. They want to stop over-provisioning data centers with less efficient equipment.

Today’s data centers often have extremely high power quality from their uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems, but that quality comes at a high price in terms of efficiency and equipment cost. Therefore, one idea is to reduce the high power quality created by the UPS and instead implement a solution that removes equipment and utilizes what is available at the entrance to the data center. Having good power quality at the data center entrance does not necessarily mean the UPS can be eliminated throughout the data center. However, it does allow for the traditional data center power configuration to be altered in new or unique ways that result in reduced total costs of ownership and/or efficiency gains while still meeting operational needs. Users’ acceptance of alternatives to traditional power quality protection will depend upon their perception of whether the solution provides the desired level of performance for considerations such as power reliability and continuous operation, power quality, and power arbitrage.

The free cooling analogy is simply a starting point. This white paper summarizes a literature search of what is known about the quality of electric power provided by utilities. Following a description and articulation of what is meant by Free Power Quality, it investigates the feasibility of using available power to minimize the number of power conversion stages in the data center power infrastructure to achieve maximum efficiency while still maintaining required reliability. It then identifies opportunities and challenges surrounding Free Power Quality.

General - March 13, 2015 Comment now
White Paper #56 - Data Center Maturity Model Handbook

With input from related parties around the world, The Green Grid developed the Data Center Maturity Model (DCMM),  which provides clear goals and direction for improving energy efficiency and sustainability across all aspects of the data center. The DCMM touches upon a data center’s major components, including power, cooling, servers, storage, and networking. The model is divided into levels that outline current best practices and provide a five-year road map for the industry.

The DCMM provides capability descriptions by data center area so that data center operators can benchmark their current performance. In this manner, operators can determine their data centers’ levels of maturity and identify the ongoing steps and innovations necessary to include in their data center/IT strategy in order to achieve greater energy efficiency and sustainability improvements, both today and into the future.

This model can be used to assess a wide range of data center areas, from facilities to IT. Thus, the objective of this white paper is to explain the DCMM’s assessment items and support the assessment process with appropriate standards. It will be helpful to also download and review The Green Grid’s White Paper #36 Data Center Maturity Model and the Data Center Maturity Model Assessment Tool from The Green Grid’s website.

General - December 23, 2014 Comment now
White Paper #62 - Data Center Environmental Impacts

Conducting life cycle assessments (LCAs) to determine a product’s environmental impacts has become relatively mainstream. Applying that same methodology to a data center and its systems is far more challenging, due to the variety of data center types and their numbers of suppliers, the lack of applicable component and system data, and the sheer complexity of a data center.

To begin to address the difficulties surrounding data center LCAs, The Green Grid, an international, nonprofit consortium working to enhance data center resource efficiency, set out to identify the main environmental impact categories for the typical data center. Drawing on a combination of results from previous studies and the expertise of its members who are experienced in this area, The Green Grid compiled a range of data center environmental impacts, organized them into five main categories, and defined objectives, measurements, and key performance indicators for some of them. The ranked levels provided follow the same 0-to-5 progression as is used in the widely adopted Data Center Maturity Model (DCMM). Using this information, data center owners and operators can better determine their most critical environmental impacts, evaluate those impacts, and take steps to mitigate them.

In response to the strong interest expressed by recent participants in The Green Grid Forums, a proposal will be put forth to translate the results of this white paper into a new “Environmental” or “Life Cycle” section in the DCMM.

General - December 11, 2014 Comment now
White Paper #61 - Space Usage Effectiveness

The Green Grid has developed a new metric to complement the series of metrics it has introduced in the past few years, which includes the widely accepted and adopted power usage effectiveness (PUE™). The Green Grid proposes this new metric to address one of the most important challenges that data center owners face: space usage in data centers. The new space usage effectiveness (SpUE™) metric joins The Green Grid’s family of xUE metrics, which includes carbon usage effectiveness (CUE™) and water usage effectiveness (WUE™) metrics as well as PUE. Data center managers can use these metrics to quickly assess the optimization of space, carbon, water, and energy usage aspects of their data centers, compare the results, and determine if any resource efficiency and/or sustainability improvements can be made. Along with PUE’s broad implementation in the industry, CUE and WUE are gaining wider acceptance and adoption, and the SpUE metric is a natural extension of the xUE family. SpUE gives managers another tool to guide improvements in the effective use of resources.

Metrics & Measurements - December 05, 2014 Comment now
White Paper #60 - IT Asset Disposition 101 for Commercial End Users

In a landscape of increasing scrutiny and importance placed on how organizations treat their used and waste electronics and electrical equipment, it is helpful to establish some order and accountability around your IT assets through their entire internal life cycle. Data center managers and other IT professionals charged with responsible management of these assets can benefit their entire organizations by establishing IT Asset Disposition (ITAD) programs.

Many ITAD programs are established with the core objectives of realizing financial accountability and return, ensuring data security or destruction, complying with legal and corporate compliance requirements, and satisfying applicable standards and certifications. In addition to fulfilling these requirements, organizations are increasingly expressing an interest in finding ways to structure programs to help them achieve environmental and sustainability goals.

Due to the wide range of organizations’ IT assets, supply chains, numbers and locations of sites, and other complexities, there can be no truly effective one-size-fits-all description of an ITAD program. This document from The Green Grid, a non-profit industry consortium that works to improve the resource efficiency of information technology and data centers worldwide, lays out specific questions for IT professionals to ask themselves and their stakeholders when considering a customized ITAD program. It is meant to serve as an extended FAQ or program reference. It provides guidance on the business case for and positive implications of creating a program; information regarding the standards, certifications, and regulations related to ITAD; insights on identifying, selecting, and managing program stakeholders and suppliers; and a discussion of operational concerns about developing, implementing, and managing a tailored ITAD program.

Metrics & Measurements - October 06, 2014 Comment now
White Paper #59 - Productivity Proxies Validation Study

The Green Grid, an international nonprofit consortium working to enhance data center resource efficiency, started the Productivity Proxies project as a method of approximating “useful work” in data centers. The concept was to develop metrics that were highly correlated to work being produced but that were cheaper, easier, and less intrusive to collect than counting every single transaction and combining them somehow.

The Green Grid White Paper #17, Proxy Proposals for Measuring Data Center Productivity, proposed eight proxies. The Green Grid White Paper #24, Productivity Proxy Proposals Feedback: Interim Results, provided details showing that ease of use was the number one most important characteristic for a successful proxy, followed by cost to implement and accuracy. In addition to the eight proxies proposed by The Green Grid, two additional proxies, IT equipment efficiency (ITEE) and IT equipment utilization (ITEU), were proposed by Japan’s Green IT Promotion Council (GIPC). These became the ninth proxy.

This validation study was designed to test the proxies in a laboratory and determine which ones correlated to useful work most accurately, which were easiest to implement, and which showed the most promise of being a generic measure of data center productivity.

General - October 03, 2014 Comment now
White Paper #58 - The Green Grid Data Center Storage Productivity Metrics (DCsP)

This white paper proposes a new set of metrics, data center storage productivity (DCsP), as part of the IT/Energy Efficiency & Effectiveness block within The Green Grid’s framework for improving data center resource efficiency.

- September 30, 2014 Comment now
White Paper #57 -Green Carrots: Incentive Programs and the IT Industry

This white paper begins with a brief history of data center–focused utility incentive programs and explores current data center industry trends, which clearly indicate that data centers remain a growth area worthy of utility attention. Next, it examines technologies typically incentivized through utility-sponsored programs. Lastly, it looks deeper into The Green Grid’s 2013 market research: its makeup, key findings, and recommendations.

Operations - April 07, 2014 Comment now
White Paper #47- Japan Data Center Regional Considerations
The purpose of this white paper is to present the Japanese data-center environment (environmental installation, legislative changes/benefits, incidental equipment facilities, operational administration, energy saving/fuel efficiency, etc.) and highlight special conditions and solutions which are being incorporated in Japan.

Technology & Strategy - November 12, 2013 Comment now
PREVIEW: White Paper #55 - Data Center Power System Harmonics

PREVIEW: Data center managers are often requesting lower harmonics numbers, but they do not always understand what the appropriate numbers are and why. Zero harmonics does not necessarily mean a better data centre operating environment. This paper outlines how to balance harmonics and efficiency, while providing a general overview of harmonics, including what they are and what they do.

General - October 15, 2013 Comment now
White Paper #55 - Data Center Power System Harmonics

Data center managers are often requesting lower harmonics numbers, but they do not always understand what the appropriate numbers are and why. Zero harmonics does not necessarily mean a better data centre operating environment. This paper outlines how to balance harmonics and efficiency, while providing a general overview of harmonics, including what they are and what they do.

General - October 15, 2013 Comment now
White Paper #53 - Electronics Disposal Efficiency (EDE): An It Recycling Metric for Enterprises and Data Centers

This white paper outlines the new Electronics Disposal Efficiency (EDE) metric. EDE is the first universal metric launched by The Green Grid to help end-users of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) measure their success in the responsible management of outdated equipment. EDE is a simple metric that helps organizations calculate and measure their progress in improving equipment disposal processes over time.

Metrics & Measurements - March 05, 2013 Comment now
White Paper #52 - An Integrated Approach to Operational Efficiency and Reliability

This white paper outlines the conscious effort made by the project development team to consider and document data center operations and management tools from the earliest planning and design phases through sustained operations. The resulting operational documents define how the facility’s systems and subsystems are intended to work collaboratively to produce optimum energy efficiency, reliability, control, and maintainability.

General - February 16, 2013 Comment now
White Paper #45 - Data Centre Life Cycle Assessment Guidelines

Increasingly, both the public and private sectors are interested in determining a product or organization’s environmental impact, also referred to as its environmental footprint. Whether for policy making, regulation compliance, or customer information purposes, environmental impact assessments are growing in importance and frequency.

A number of entities have developed methodologies and tools for assessing environmental impacts some can be applied in a limited way to a data centre. The current state of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodologies, the lack of applicable primary and secondary data for assessing data centre components and systems, and the complexity of the data centre create serious difficulties in performing a data centre LCA. The Green Grid—an international, non-profit consortium working to enhance data centre resource efficiency—does not seek to develop yet another methodology or calculate the environmental impacts of a particular data centre, but rather to provide a framework and rules that can be used by organizations around the world to describe the specifics of their data centres in a consistent manner, so that all the different methodologies can evaluate a data centre’s environmental impacts in the same way.

The Green Grid’s framework is intended to be used by data centre owners, renters, and operators as a common basis in order to harmonize environmental impact studies. This white paper introduces the framework, highlights supporting industry standards, and discusses how to identify and uniformly describe the key elements of a data centre for the purposes of conducting a complete life cycle assessment of a data centre’s full environmental impacts.

General - November 20, 2012 Comment now
White Paper #51 - Power Equipment and Data Center Design

This paper explores various topics that impact efficiency, including power system configurations and how a data center is “grown” over time. In addition, the paper details different power system components and review measurement and control points for each of these components.

General - November 15, 2012 Comment now
White Paper #50 - Data Center Efficiency and IT Equipment Reliability at Wider Operating Temperature and Humidity Ranges

This white paper looks at how the environmental parameters of temperature and humidity affect IT equipment, examining reliability and energy usage as the data center operating range is extended. Using recently published ASHRAE data, the paper addresses misconceptions related to the application of higher operating temperatures. In addition, it explores the hypothesis that data center efficiency can be further improved by employing a wider operational range without substantive impacts on reliability or service availability.

General - October 23, 2012 Comment now
White Paper #49-PUE: A Comprehensive Examination of the Metric

This white paper provides guidelines for determining the PUE of a dedicated data center and that of a mixed-use facility or specialized facility, along with results, scalability analyses, and case studies. It also discusses Partial PUE and outlines the approach to reuse waste heat. Issues such as availability of equipment and the productivity of the data center require different metrics and different analyses. This book is available free of charge to members as a benefit of your membership in the organization.

This publication supersedes all prior white papers and consolidates all of the new and previously published content that The Green Grid has developed related to PUE. The definition and measurement guidelines included in this book have been harmonized globally, with a primary focus on energy.

Metrics & Measurements - October 02, 2012 Comment now
White Paper #48 - Evaluation of Eco Mode in Uninterruptible Power Supply Systems

UPS Eco Mode is one of The Green Grid’s Data Center Maturity Model energy saving recommendations, and can increase overall efficiency when implemented correctly. In order to help understand and deploy what is typically the highest-efficiency mode, the Evaluation of Eco Mode in Uninterruptible Power Supply Systems white paper breaks down key elements such as UPS technology and performance, critical power systems configuration, IT power supply ride-through, and utility grid reliability. The paper explores each of these ideas and their trade-offs, helping data center operators understand Eco Mode from the ground up.

Technology & Strategy - September 24, 2012 Comment now
White Paper 46 - Updated Air-Side Free Cooling Maps: The Impact of ASHRAE 2011 Allowable Ranges

In May 2011, the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) published updated guidelines for the “Recommended” and “Allowable” temperature and humidity of data centers. The new specification created two new classifications of data centers and expanded the range of Allowable environmental conditions in order to encourage energy efficiency practices like air-side economization. The Green Grid published Free Cooling maps in 2009 based on the ASHRAE 2008 Recommended ranges for temperature and humidity. Now, with the wider Allowable ranges, new maps showing the expanded potential for free cooling are needed to encourage design teams to incorporate these energy saving techniques.

Technology & Strategy - March 06, 2012 Comment now
WP#44 - Energy Policy Research and Implications For Data Centres In EMEA

Energy security, energy prices and climate change have dramatically risen up the policy agenda, resulting in a comprehensive policy framework in many countries. The growth of data centres, along with their energy intensity, means the industry will be particularly affected by legislation driving efficiency of design, build and operations — above and beyond the business impacts of increasing cost of energy and of carbon.

 This study summarises the key policy mechanisms affecting the data center industry across a selection of countries in EMEA, focusing on:

  • The regulatory obligations placed upon data centres operating in the country
  • The voluntary mechanisms within the country, with the impacts on reputation
  • The financial incentives targeting investment in low carbon technologies and practices
  • The financial costs associated with energy and carbon, aiming to incentivise action
Data Collection & Analysis - January 25, 2012 Comment now
WP#43 - Survey Results: Implementation of ASHRAE 2008 Environmental Guidelines in Japan

In September of 2010, The Green Grid Japan Technical Work Group conducted a survey pertaining to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) 2008 environmental guideline applications. Through the release of the survey results, The Green Grid aims to make this white paper a reference guide for data center best practice applications.

Data Collection & Analysis - January 25, 2012 Comment now
Climate Savers White Paper - Energy Efficiency Guide for Networking Devices

This Climate Savers Computing Initiative (CSCI) white paper is an acquired asset of The Green Grid. The paper focuses on evaluating and comparing the energy efficiency of network devices for purposes of both procurement and network design.

General - December 13, 2011 Comment now
WP#42 - Deploying and Using Containerized Modular Data Center Facilities

The rapidly maturing containerized and/modular data center facility (CMDF) platforms offered within the industry today can enable organizations to realize significant and demonstrated technical and business value when properly applied. This value comes from the repeatable, pre-engineered, prefabricated, and quality-assured set of building blocks that together bring online the necessary amount of IT capacity.

Technology & Strategy - November 15, 2011 Comment now
Climate Savers White Paper - Power Management for Networking Devices

This Climate Savers Computing Initiative (CSCI) white paper is an acquired asset of The Green Grid. The paper addresses device power management and control. Specficially, it describes the importance of monitoring the power and performance characteristics of networking devices and communicating device-level information to network management systems.

General - November 01, 2011 Comment now
WP#41-Survey Results: Data Center Economizer Use

Economizers represent an effective means of increasing energy efficiency and reducing costs in data centers, and TGG expects this survey’s findings to spur further economizer research, education, and adoption efforts. This white paper highlights some of the most interesting results from TGG’s survey.

Data Collection & Analysis - October 10, 2011 Comment now
Climate Savers White Paper - Power Management System Design Guide

This Climate Savers Computing Initiative (CSCI) white paper is an acquired asset of The Green Grid. The CSCI Power Management System Design Guide is a reference document on how to build energy-efficient, power-managed client platforms. Specifically, this guide presents guideliunes and recommendations to achieve Standby (S3) state reliability, while reducing Standby, Resume and Sleep latencies resulting in positive user experiences.

General - June 01, 2011 Comment now
Climate Savers White Paper - Considerations for Selecting Power Supplies for Networking Equipment and Evaluating Power Conversion Efficiency

This Climate Savers Computing Initiative (CSCI) white paper is an acquired asset of The Green Grid. The paper focuses on the unique usage considerations found in networking equipment, and the resulting complications that affect power supply unit selection as well as operational challenges associated with system demand requirements.

General - June 01, 2011 Comment now
WP#30-Qualitative Analysis of Cooling Architectures

Many different cooling architectures exist today that can be used to cool data centers. Each of these architectures has its own advantages and disadvantages that can have a major impact on energy efficiency as well as on other aspects of the facility. This white paper offers a qualitative comparison among the popular architectures available today, providing readers with insight to help determine the cooling architecture that most appropriately fits their data center strategy.

Technology & Strategy - March 01, 2011 Comment now
WP#37-An Analysis of Server Virtualization Utility Incentives

Utilities grappling with the growth of energy use in data centers can still cost-effectively reap significant electricity savings from server virtualization. This paper provides an analysis of virtualization from a utility energy efficiency program perspective and explains why most utilities should offer strong customer incentives for it. Program design and savings calculation methods are also included to help utilities start or refine a server virtualization incentive program.

Operations - March 01, 2011 Comment now
WP#38-Understanding and Engaging Utility Incentive Programs

This white paper provides an overview of elements common to most utility incentive programs. It will help the IT professional gain an understanding of how these programs work and simplify the process of engaging with your utility to take advantage of available funding. Utilities offering these programs have mandates to achieve energy savings and are very willing to help you with the process of getting an incentive.

Operations - March 01, 2011 Comment now
WP#35-Water Usage Effectiveness (WUE™): A Green Grid Data Center Sustainability Metric

This white paper introduces the water usage effectiveness (WUE™) metric, which combined with the power usage effectiveness (PUE™)  and carbon usage effectiveness (CUE™) metrics, enables data center operators to quickly assess the water, energy, and carbon sustainability aspects of their data centers, compare the results, and determine if any energy efficiency and/or sustainability improvements need to be made.

Metrics & Measurements - March 01, 2011 Comment now
WP#36-Data Center Maturity Model
The Green Grid has developed the Data Center Maturity Model (DCMM) and supporting white paper to outline capability descriptors by area such that users can benchmark their current performance, determine their levels of maturity, and identify the ongoing steps and innovations necessary to achieve greater energy efficiency and sustainability, both today and into the future.  The maturity model touches upon every aspect of the data center including power, cooling, compute, storage and network. The levels of the model outline current best practices and a 5-year roadmap for the industry.


General - February 21, 2011 Comment now
WP#34-The Green Grid Data Center Compute Efficiency Metric: DCcE

The Green Grid is proposing the use of a new metric—data center compute efficiency (DCcE)—and its underlying sub-metric, server compute efficiency (ScE). These metrics will enable data center operators to determine the efficiency of their compute resources, which allows them to identify areas of inefficiency. Using DCcE and ScE, data center operators can continually refine and increase the efficiency of their compute resources in the same way that they use power usage effectiveness (PUE) to improve data center infrastructure.

Metrics & Measurements - December 20, 2010 Comment now
WP#32-Carbon Usage Effectiveness (CUE): A Green Grid Data Center Sustainability Metric

This white paper introduces the carbon usage effectiveness (CUE) metric and addresses data center–specific carbon emissions, which is emerging as an extremely important factor in the design, location, and operation of these facilities today and in the future. CUE, combined with PUE, enables data center operators to quickly assess the relative sustainability of their data centers, compare the results, and determine if any energy efficiency and/or sustainable energy improvements need to be made.

Metrics & Measurements - December 02, 2010 Comment now
WP#33-A Roadmap for the Adoption of Power-Related Features in Servers

This report was commissioned to examine the current state of the market in relation to the use of server power management features and to develop a roadmap to adoption of power management in the data center.

Data Collection & Analysis - December 01, 2010 Comment now
WP#31-Issues Relating to the Adoption of Higher Voltage Direct Current Power in the Data Center

Higher voltage direct current (HVdc) power distribution configurations have the potential to reduce energy consumption and increase efficiency in the data center. However, if data center operators, equipment manufacturers, and others opt to make HVdc a primary power distribution configuration, some critical issues need to be resolved for maximum cost-effectiveness, ease of adoption, and safety related to HVdc. Although difficult, establishing global HVdc standards will help smooth adoption and avoid some of the expense and inefficiencies that the industry has had to deal with related to variances in AC power systems.

Technology & Strategy - October 20, 2010 Comment now
WP#28-Unused Servers Survey Results Analysis

In December 2009, The Green Grid conducted a brief survey to learn more about the number and nature of unused servers currently running in data centers. Results showed that only one-fifth of data center operators attempt to identify unused servers as part of their regular day-to-day operations. Those respondents who do look have an average of 10 percent unused servers in their data centers. Knowing whether servers are being well-used for productive work, and turning off those that are not, will help data centers be more energy efficient, reduce redundant infrastructure, and avoid unnecessary spending and environmental impact.

Data Collection & Analysis - October 20, 2010 Comment now
WP#29-ERE: A Metric for Measuring the Benefit of Reuse Energy from a Data Center

The energy efficiency of data centers continues to be a critical factor in improving the overall energy use of IT equipment. In more and more new facilities, the energy from the data center is being reused in other parts of the facility or campus with beneficial results. These designs lack a metric with which can be tracked and compared. Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) is a base data center infrastructure metric, but it does not consider these alternate uses for the waste energy. To account for these, The Green Grid has proposed and defined a new metric: Energy Reuse Effectiveness, or ERE.

Metrics & Measurements - September 22, 2010 Comment now
WP#27-Impact of Virtualization on Data Center Physical Infrastructure

Data center virtualization, which includes storage, desktop, and server virtualization, reduces overall IT equipment electrical load through consolidation of systems. The resulting energy savings can be further maximized if IT or facilities managers adjust the power and cooling infrastructure to accommodate the reduced loads.

Operations - January 27, 2010 Comment now
WP#26-Energy Measurement Survey Results Analysis

In February 2009, The Green Grid conducted an online survey to better understand how data centers are measuring energy usage, the challenges they encounter, and the actions they take when they learn more about their energy efficiency.

Data Collection & Analysis - November 04, 2009 Comment now
WP#25-The Green Grid Energy Policy Research for Data Centres: France, Germany, The Netherlands, and The United Kingdom

Climate change and fuel security have dramatically risen up the policy agenda, resulting in a comprehensive policy framework at both the European Union (EU) and national levels. The growth of data centres, and their energy intensity, means the industry will be particularly affected by the drive for energy efficiency of product design and building services.

Data Collection & Analysis - October 19, 2009 Comment now
WP#24-Productivity Proxy Proposals Feedback: Interim Results

In January 2009 The Green Grid (TGG) published a paper entitled, “Proxy Proposals for Measuring Data Center Productivity,” which proposed eight candidates for a simple proxy that would be useful for estimating DCeP, but significantly easier to calculate than the DCeP metric is. This paper reviews the results of the feedback from users that was gathered as to which of the proposed proxies they felt would be the most useful and worthy of further investigation.

Metrics & Measurements - October 07, 2009 Comment now
WP#22-Usage and Public Reporting Guidelines for PUE/DCiE

The Green Grid is publishing a set of rules and guidelines and a required process that organizations should follow when making public claims as to PUE or DCiE measurements for their data centers.

Metrics & Measurements - October 02, 2009 Comment now
WP#23-Proper Sizing of IT Power and Cooling Loads

This white paper has been developed to introduce the reader to the many new and highly accurate software tools available for estimating power and cooling capacity requirements.

Technology & Strategy - July 27, 2009 Comment now
WP#08-Data Center Baseline Study Report

This paper provides a detailed analysis of two questions that The Green Grid sought to explore more deeply: "What, if anything, is driving a need to increase energy efficiency", and "What are the obstacles to becoming more energy efficient in your data center?"

Data Collection & Analysis - April 10, 2009 Comment now
Climate Savers White Paper - Motherboard Power Efficiency Measurement Process

This Climate Savers Computing Initiative (CSCI) white paper is an acquired asset of The Green Grid. The paper describes how to measure the power efficiency of server computer motherboards.

General - March 10, 2009 Comment now
Appendix A: Fundamentals of Data Center Power and Cooling Image HR

Appendix A Power and Cooling Data Center Image - High Resolution

Operations - March 04, 2009 Comment now
Appendix A: Fundamentals of Data Center Power and Cooling Image LR

Appendix A - Fundamentals of Data Center Power and Cooling Image Low Resolution

Operations - March 04, 2009 Comment now
WP#21-Fundamentals of Data Center Power and Cooling

Data center efficiency is impacted by physical infrastructure equipment residing both inside and outside of the physical data center. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of where the power and cooling efficiency losses are likely to occur, and offers suggestions regarding how to correct the inefficiencies.


Operations - March 04, 2009 Comment now
WP#18-ASHRAE Datacom Book Series

The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Technical Committee (TC) 9.9, “Mission-Critical Facilities, Technology Spaces, and Electronic Equipment,” has published a series of environmental books for datacom applications. These books bridge the technology gaps between IT and facilities, providing a holistic view of data centers and insight into solutions that address current and future issues. The mission of TC 9.9 is “To be recognized by all areas of the datacom industry as the unbiased engineering leader in the subject of HVAC and an effective provider of technical information.”

Technology & Strategy - January 28, 2009 Comment now
WP#20-PUE Scalability Metric and Statistical Analyses

This paper explains how to leverage energy consumption data collection to enhance the results of PUE/DCiE metrics with additional statistical analyses and a new metric called PUE Scalability to provide a well-rounded view of data center infrastructure energy efficiency.

Metrics & Measurements - January 28, 2009 Comment now
WP#17-Proxy Proposals for Measuring Data Center Productivity

Proxy Proposals for Measuring Data Center Productivity

Metrics & Measurements - January 14, 2009 Comment now
WP#19-Using Virtualization to Improve Data Center Efficiency

This paper outlines some of the advantages, considerations, processes, and implementation strategies needed to reduce server power consumption in a data center using virtualization techniques.

Operations - January 14, 2009 Comment now
WP#05.1-Existing Data Center & IT Energy Efficiency Metrics, Guidelines and Programs

In this paper, The Green Grid provides a survey of various organizations that are currently investigating issues surrounding data center power and energy.

Metrics & Measurements - January 07, 2009 Comment now
WP#16-Quantitative Analysis of Power Distribution Configurations for Data Centers

This paper studies the end-to-end efficiency of eight simplified, non-redundant data center power distribution configurations.

Technology & Strategy - December 01, 2008 Comment now
WP#11-Seven Strategies to Improve Data Center Cooling Efficiency

This paper provides insight on seven strategies that, when properly implemented, can have a significant effect on the cooling portion of the Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) metric.

Technology & Strategy - October 21, 2008 Comment now
WP#09-Addressing Organizational Behavior Issues to Optimize IT and Facilities Energy Efficiency

Focusing on interactions between IT and facilities departments, this paper identifies how greater cooperation by these departments can greatly enhance how data centers are designed, built, and operated so as to maximize resources and provide the levels of service needed by IT.

Operations - July 30, 2008 Comment now
WP#14-Data Center Infrastructure Efficiency (DCiE) Detailed Analysis

This paper serves as a follow-up to the previously published paper "The Green Grid Metrics: Describing Data Center Power Efficiency." The paper provides a detailed analysis to support and strengthen the DCiE metric with the intent of enabling data center managers collectively to derive and use DCiE as a global standard metric.

Metrics & Measurements - July 02, 2008 Comment now
WP#15-Green Grid Productivity Indicator

This paper proposes a tool which visualizes how effectively the resources in the data center are being used. Through the use of a radial graph, relevant indicators such as data center efficiency, data center utilization and IT utilization can be quickly and clearly communicated to provide organizational awareness.

Metrics & Measurements - July 02, 2008 Comment now
WP#10-Framework for Establishing a Rating System for Operational Data Center Infrastructure Energy Efficiency

This paper delivers a results-oriented means to evaluate the energy efficiency of a data center. This rating system focuses on rewarding data centers that measure energy-use over a long period of time, log data for short-term and long-term energy efficiency calculations, and analyze the scalability of total energy-use as information technology (IT) equipment load varies.

Metrics & Measurements - June 25, 2008 Comment now
WP#13-A Framework for Data Center Energy Productivity

This paper introduces a new family of data center resource optimization metrics designated collectively as Data Center Productivity (DCP) metrics and presents the first derivative metric within this family called Data Center energy Productivity (DCeP).

Metrics & Measurements - April 29, 2008 Comment now
WP#07-Five Ways to Reduce Data Center Server Power Consumption

This document addresses changes that can be made at the server1 level. Reducing energy use at the point of consumption (the server) provides benefits at all other levels by reducing load on power and cooling facilities which in turn reduces their own energy use.

Technology & Strategy - April 02, 2008 Comment now
WP#12-The Green Grid Peer Review of "DC Power for Improved Data Center Efficiency" by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

As the demands on data centers increase, creating higher costs and power usage, the industry is looking for ways to increase efficiency and decrease operating costs in the data center.

Technology & Strategy - April 02, 2008 Comment now
WP#04-Qualitative Analysis of Power Distribution Configurations for Data Centers

Many different power distribution configurations exist today that can be used to power a data center. This paper discusses the qualitative differences between seven possible configurations that can either be found in the United States or Canada today, or could be used in the future.

Technology & Strategy - October 23, 2007 Comment now
WP#06-The Green Grid Data Center Power Efficiency Metrics: PUE and DCiE

The Green Grid is an association of IT professionals seeking to dramatically raise the energy efficiency of data centers through a series of short-term and long-term proposals. This is an update to the first white paper published by the Green Grid in February 2007 called "Green Grid Metrics: Describing Data Center Power Efficiency."

Metrics & Measurements - October 23, 2007 Comment now
WP#01-The Green Grid Metrics: Describing Data Center Power Efficiency

The Green Grid explains the use of the Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) metric, along with its reciprocal the Data Center Efficiency (DCE) metric.

Metrics & Measurements - February 20, 2007 Comment now
WP#02-Guidelines for Energy Efficient Data Centers

The Green Grid provides a framework for improving the efficiency of both new and existing data centers. The nature of data center energy consumption is reviewed and best practices are suggested that can significantly impact operational efficiencies.

Metrics & Measurements - February 16, 2007 Comment now
WP#03-The Green Grid Opportunity

The Green Grid examines why it is so important to define and propagate the best energy efficiency practices in data center operation, construction and design. In this paper, The Green Grid has identified both short-term and long-term objectives to increase the energy efficiency of datacenters and IT infrastructure equipment.

- February 16, 2007 Comment now

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